General Information on Hazards
General Information on Hazards
Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC)
The Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC) coordinates and disseminates Federal atmospheric dispersion modeling and hazard prediction products. These products provide the Federal position during actual or potential incidents involving hazardous material releases. Through plume modeling analysis, the IMAAC provides emergency responders with predictions of hazards associated with atmospheric releases to aid in the decision making process to protect the public and the environment.
U.S. Government Bookstore (GPO): Hazardous
Federal publications about hazardous materials, bioterrorism, chemical
warfare and response, including
Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-Explosive (CBRNE) incidents, clean-up
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT)
The Department of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) provides resources and links
related to hazardous materials transportation safety and security.
Office of Hazardous Materials Safety (PHMSA)
Carries out a national safety program, including security matters, to
protect against the risks to life and property inherent in the transportation
of hazardous materials in commerce (other than bulk transportation onboard
Substances Portal (ATSDR)
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ToxFAQs™ is a
series of summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division
of Toxicology. Information for this series is excerpted from the ATSDR
Toxicological Profiles and Public Health Statements. Each fact sheet serves as
a quick and easy to understand guide. Answers are provided to the most
frequently asked questions (FAQs) about exposure to hazardous substances found
around hazardous waste sites and the effects of exposure on human health.
Chemical Safety Alerts (EPA)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Safety Alert Publications.
Management Agency Library of Federally Declared Disasters (FEMA)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Library of Federally Declared
Natural Hazards Center (University of Colorado at Boulder)
The Natural Hazards Center - University of Colorado Boulder is the National Science Foundation-designated information clearinghouse for the societal dimensions of hazards and disasters. The Natural Hazards Center is dedicated to reducing disaster harm through: (1) translating and sharing hazards and disaster research and information; (2) building connections between researchers, non-profit and private sector professionals, the media, policy makers, and local, state, and federal officials; (3) advancing social science and interdisciplinary knowledge, with a special emphasis on the most vulnerable populations and places; and (4) training and mentoring the diverse next generation of hazards and disaster professionals.
Medical Nuclear, Biological
and Chemical Information Server (Office of the Surgeon General)
Provides news, medical references, site guides and training.
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (DOD)
The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical
Defense (USAMRICD) is the nation's leading science and technology
laboratory in the area of medical chemical countermeasures research and
Toxic Release Inventory
Publicly available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database containing
information on chemical releases and waste management activities.
Addresses hazardous materials incidents in hospitals, clinics, and other
U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard
Investigation Board (CSB)
The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, also known as the
Chemical Safety Board or CSB, is an independent U.S. federal agency charged
with investigating industrial chemical accidents.
Hazardous Materials Incidents (DHS)
Learn what actions to include in your family disaster plan to prepare for
and respond to such incidents.
2005 Hazardous Materials Response Special Teams Handbook (USCG)
A U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) reference/job aid designed to provide quick access to the
capabilities of various special teams specifically related to oil, hazardous materials (hazmat) and weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Materials Roundtable (2003)
Summarizes the 2003 Hazardous Materials Roundtable sponsored by the
International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC). Current/emerging hazmat
issues are discussed; plans for federal and IAFC action are developed.
National Emergency Training Center Library (US Fire Administration)
The National Emergency Training Center’s (NETC) library provides information and resources on fire, emergency management and other all-hazards subjects. With our collection of more than 208,000 books, reports, audiovisual materials and indexed articles, the library supports National Fire Academy and Emergency Management Institute student and faculty research, classroom lectures, and development of course materials.
Public Health Emergency (HHS)
Public health resources and tools for the public and healthcare, response and recovery workers. The website is frequently updated based on emerging hazards and current events, such as natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes), bioterrorism, or disease outbreaks.
Natural Disasters and Severe Weather (HHS CDC)
Preparedness, health and safety, and response resources for a variety of natural disaster and severe weather events, to include earthquakes, extreme heat, floods, hurricanes, landslides/mudslides, lighting, tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanoes, wildfires, and winter weather.
NRT Quick Reference Guides (QRGs)
Biological Quick Reference Guides
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) QRG (2011)
Brucellosis (Brucella) QRG (2011)
Q-fever (Coxiella brunetii) QRG (2011)
Glanders & Melioidosis (Burkolderia mallei & Burkholderia pseudomallei) QRG (2011)
Plague (Yersinia pestis) QRG (2011)
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) QRG (2011)
Bacillus anthracis PPE Wash Water Decontamination QRG (2012)
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (Hantavirus) QRG (2012)
Hemorrhagic Fever (10 Viruses) QRG (2012)
Smallpox (Orthopoxvirus) QRG (2012)
Tick-Borne Encephalitis (Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus) QRG (2012)
Ricin and Abrin (Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius) QRG (2020)
Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) QRG (2011)
QRG Reference Documents
Bacterials Reference Documents (2012)
Virals Reference Documents (2012)
External Web Links
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. For more than 60 years, NIAID research has led to new therapies, vaccines, diagnostic tests, and other technologies that have improved the health of millions of people in the United States and around the world. NIAID is one of the 27 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Emergency Preparedness and Response for Anthrax.
NRT Quick Reference Guides (QRGs) (excludes oil)
Chemical Quick Reference Guides
GA (Tabun) QRG (2015)
GB (Sarin) QRG (2015)
GD (Soman) QRG (2015)
GF (Cyclosarin) QRG (2015)
VX QRG (2015)
Sulfur Mustard (HD) QRG (2015)
Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL) QRG (2015)
Lewisite (L) QRG (2015)
Key References Cited/Used in Chemical Warfare Agent QRGs (2015): GA (Tabun), GB (Sarin), GD (Soman), GF (Cyclosarin), Agent VX, HD (Sulfur Mustard), Lewisite (L), and Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)
Ammonia (NH3) QRG (2020)
Phosphine (PH3) QRG (2018)
Phosgene (CG) QRG (2017)
Arsine (SA) QRG (2017)
Hydrogen Cyanide (AC) QRG (2017)
Cyanide Salts QRG (2017)
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) QRG (2016)
Chlorine Gas (CL) QRG (2015)
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) QRG (2015)
Organothiophosphate (OTP) Pesticides QRG (Parathion, Methyl Parathion, Disulfoton, Phorate, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion) (2018)
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) QRG (2013)
Ethanol QRG (2010)
Fentanyl Factsheet for Federal On-Scene Coordinators (EPA) (2018). Additional fentanyl resources are listed below:
- Fentanyl (NIOSH)
- Opioid overdoses (CDC)
- Exposure training module (NIEHS)
- Preventing occupational exposure to emergency responders (NIOSH)
- Preventing occupational exposure to healthcare personnel in hospital and clinic settings (NIOSH)
- Personal protective equipment (PPE) table for protection against fentanyl and its analogues (NIOSH)
External Web Links
Massachusetts Large Volume/High Concentration (LV/HC) Ethanol Incident Response Annex (Commonwealth of Massachusetts)
The purpose of the Massachusetts LV/HC Ethanol Incident Response Annex is to promote situational awareness and outline the operational activities surrounding a state response to large scale emergency involving ethanol, such as the response to an incident involving railroad tank cars or a barge containing ethanol, within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) Fourth Generation Agents (NIH)
Resources to help the emergency response community prepare for and respond to a fourth generation agent incident. Fourth generation agents, also known as Novichoks or A-series nerve agents, belong to a category of chemical warfare agents that are unique organophosphorus compounds.
Emergency Response Guidebook (DOT)
Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) produced by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA).
Chemical Hazards Response Information System (USCG)
The Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) is designed to provide information needed for decision-making by responsible U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) personnel during emergencies that occur during the water transport of hazardous chemicals.
Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act Overview (EPA)
Fact sheets, statutes, regulations, policies, frequently asked questions (FAQs), etc.
Evidence-Based Planning Guidance for Patient Decontamination: “Patient Decontamination in a Mass Chemical Exposure Incident: National Planning Guidance for Communities (DHS)
The Chemical Defense Program (CDP), under the Department of Homeland Security Office of Health Affairs (OHA), and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), have published the document titled “Patient Decontamination in a Mass Chemical Exposure Incident: National Planning Guidance for Communities.
Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (FEMA)
Overview of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP).
A round-the-clock resource for obtaining immediate critical response information for incidents involving hazardous materials and dangerous goods.
Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (EPA)
Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) is a system of software applications used to plan for and respond to chemical emergencies. Developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders, CAMEO can access, store, and evaluate information critical for developing emergency plans.
Member Agency Resources
Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances (1997)
Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the special fire or explosion
hazard storage tanks containing flammable substances may represent in the event
of a lightning strike, a spark, that might otherwise cause little or no damage.
The alert discusses how to minimize such hazards and provides further resources
on lightning protection, statutes, regulations, codes and standards.
External Web Links
National Fire Protection
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Homepage.
US Fire Administration
The U.S. Fire Administration is the lead Federal agency for fire data
collection, public fire education, fire research and Fire Service training.
National Interagency Fire
The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC), located in Boise, Idaho, is the
nation's support center for wildland firefighting.
Member Agency Resources
Responding to Military Munitions Concept Plan (USCG Sector Delaware Bay)
Developed by U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Sector Delaware Bay, the concept plan provides a guidance framework for response to a maritime incident involving sea disposed discarded military munitions (conventional and chemical munitions). The concept plan outlines the planning considerations, guidance, and resources that can be applied to a situation. Every situation is different, and poses its own set of unique challenges and variables.
3R (Recognize, Retreat, Report) Explosives Safety Program (DOD)
Materials for communities (e.g., divers and other outdoor recreational activities) and workers (e.g., fishing, maritime, and dredging) is available from the Department of Defense (DOD) Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Network and Information Exchange (DENIX).
- Glossary of terms compiled by DOD Recovered Chemical Warfare Material (RCWM) Program
- DoD Research Related to Effect of Ocean Disposal of Munitions in U.S. Coastal Waters – Report to Congress – November 2016
Recovery of Sea-Disposed Chemical Warfare Material during Commercial Fishing, Clamming, and Dredging Operations (CDC)
Specific materials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Chemical Demilitarization Section, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and other partners include the following:
- Recovery of Sea-Disposed Chemical Warfare Material pamphlet - Lays out a sequence of personal protection, disposal, and after-event monitoring and provides guidance regarding what to do starting from the point that a munition was inadvertently brought aboard. The document concisely covers things important to protecting the health of fishermen who could encounter these munitions: disposal overview; protective equipment donning and doffing; and 9 step emergency disposal procedure.
- Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders - A poster that concisely lays out the 9 steps of emergency disposal procedure at sea.
- Signs and Symptoms of Exposure to Sulphur Mustard - A “take me with you to your healthcare provider” card with useful information about signs, symptoms, and chemical testing.
Ethanol QRG (2010)
|NRT Quick Reference Guide (QRG) for Federal On-Scene Coordinators (FOSCs) responding to an ethanol incident.
Sorbents and Solidifiers (2007)
|The NRT-RRT Factsheet Application of Sorbents and Solidifiers for Oil Spills
is a planning document written by the NRT Science and Technology Committee. It
was developed to inform readers of the acceptable use or prohibition of
solidifiers listed on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Subpart
J Product Schedule (Product Schedule) for mitigation of oil spills. This Factsheet will also
assist product manufacturers and members of the response community in
distinguishing a sorbent from a solidifier for purposes of listing such
products on the Product Schedule and applying them in the field. Finally, the document
can be used for identifying the benefits and shortcomings of using solidifiers
in different situations (e.g., light oil, sheens, heavy viscous oils, low
temperature) and contrasting that to the use of sorbents.
Oil Spill Field Operations Guide (1996)
|Produced by the Standard Oil Spill Response Management System (STORMS) task
force, this Field Operations Guide (FOG) is intended to provide guidance in forming a response
management system for oil spills. It is endorsed by Firescope California, is
consistent with the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System/Unified Command (ICS/UC) and complies with the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).
Training Reference for Oil Spill Response (1994)
|There are four federal agencies with responsibilities under the Oil Pollution
Act (OPA) to require vessel and facility response plans: the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG),
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of
Transportation’s (DOT's) Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), and the
Minerals Management Service (MMS). In order to assist companies in meeting their
regulatory responsibilities to develop training programs for their personnel,
the four federal agencies have developed this training reference manual for oil
spill response. The contents provide a foundation of suggested subject material
for training personnel with responsibilities identified in response plans.
Member Agency Resources
NCP Subpart J Product Schedule (EPA)
After Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) review, products may be listed on the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule (Product Schedule) in accordance with 40 CFR 300.900 et seq. The listing of a product on the Product Schedule does NOT mean that EPA approves, recommends, licenses, certifies, or authorizes the use of that product on an oil discharge. Additionally, the listing of a product on the Product Schedule does not mandate the use of that product by the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC), state, industry, or any oil spill response organization. Only a FOSC may authorize the use of a product that has been listed on the Product Schedule. RRTs and Area Committees may predetermine the suitability of using a product at a particular location, provided that product is listed on the Product Schedule. In some cases, these “preauthorization zones” have been established for designated areas. The FOSC may authorize the use of products not already pre-authorized for use in a pre-authorization zone, or may authorize the use of products outside of a pre-authorization zone, under the process established by 40 CFR 300.910. In determining the proper response, the FOSC must consider a number of factors unique to each oil discharge when determining which- if any- products should be authorized for use to address the discharge. No single product has been scientifically proven to work more effectively than other products in all potential discharge response situations.
Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (2003) (FWS)
For use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other natural resource management agencies, oiled bird rehabilitators, On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), and Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) as a guide in developing appropriate sections of Area Contingency Plans, evaluating contractors for bird capture and rehabilitation, making informed choices during spill responses, and evaluating oiled bird rehabilitation activities to improve field practices.The creators of this document set out to define and recommend the best practices for their field with the aim of promoting the welfare of migratory birds during an oil spill response.
Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act and Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (EPA)
This consolidated list or "list of lists" has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA); whether they are subject to accident prevention regulations; and what reports may need to be submitted.
Oil Fact Sheets for Spill Responders (NOAA)
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration developed the following fact sheets provide technical information about the characteristics of different oils, their behavior when spilled, and their effects on wildlife, plants, and habitats:
- Biodiesel Spills
- Denatured Ethanol Spills
- Dielectric Fluids Spills (non-PCB fluids)
- Small Diesel Spills (500-5,000 gallons)
- Diluted Bitumen (Dilbit) Spills
- Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) Spills
- Kerosene and Jet Fuel Spills
- Non-Petroleum Oil Spills
- Light Shale (Tight) Oil Spills
- Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Spills
Final Bakken Crude Oil: Worker Health and Safety Pilot Scale Studies (2018)
Two studies were performed by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Response Team (ERT) with the assistance of the Scientific, Engineering, Response and Analytical Services (SERAS) contract program to further the knowledge base for those responding to oil discharges that pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. While significant testing has been performed by different organizations on crude oil produced from the Bakken formation, the testing is generally comprised of standard petroleum characteristic analyses and characterization for proper transportation based on Department of Transportation (DOT) classifications. The data from these testing programs have provided critical knowledge for classifying and understanding standard properties of hazardous materials - in this case, a light, sweet crude oil. The primary purpose of these Pilot Scale Studies was to determine air concentrations, under observed meteorological conditions, of benzene in Bakken Crude following spills to water. The resulting information helps to inform initial decision-making and thereby better protect workers involved in a Bakken Crude Oil release response.
Oil, Alternative Techniques
Environmental Monitoring for Atypical Dispersant Operations (2013)
Approved by the NRT Members on May 30, 2013, this guidance was developed to assist On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and RRTs in making incident-specific and planning decisions regarding environmental monitoring during atypical dispersant operations. The guidance is a living document envisioned to continue addressing monitoring challenges as conditions dictate; and allows for the inclusion of other atypical dispersant applications. In its current version, this document contains the following:
1. Subsea Application Guidance – generally applies to the subsurface ocean environment, focusing particularly on operations in waters below 300 meters and below the average pycnocline.
2. Prolonged Surface Application Guidance – supplements and complements the existing protocols as outlined in the Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) monitoring program where the duration of the application of dispersants on discharged oil extends beyond 96 hours from the time of the first application.
Guide to Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (2001)
|Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART), a guidance
document, recommends monitoring methods, equipment, personnel training, and
command and control procedures that strike a balance between the operational
demand for rapid response and the Unified Command's (UC's) need for feedback from the
field in order to make informed decisions.
Bioremediation in Oil Response (2000)
|An information update on the use of bioremediation, a technique that may be
applicable in responding to an oil spill under certain geographic and climatic
conditions. Bioremediation converts toxigenic compounds of oil to nontoxic
products without disrupting the local environment.
Emulsion Breakers and Inhibiters for Treating Oil Spills (1997)
|Emulsification of oil can severely inhibit recovery capabilities of skimmers,
reduce pumping volumes, and render non-mechanical techniques less effective.
Emulsion breakers (de-emulsifiers) are used to break or prevent the formation of
emulsions on the open seas and break recovered emulsions in skimmers and tanks.
This fact sheet provides an up-to-date summary of emulsion breaker research, and
identifies further needed areas of research.
Use of Chemical Dispersants on Oil Spills (1993)
|Discusses the use of chemical dispersants as an oil spill response strategy
for open-water application. Reviews past use, effectiveness, toxicity, and
mechanics of dispersant.
Oil, On-Water Mechanical
Temporary Storage Devices (Towable) (1995)
|Provides information on the use of towable, temporary storage devices (TSD) in oil spill response as an immediate temporary storage receptacle, on-site.
NRT Memo Regarding Recent National Institute of Environmental Sciences and US Coast Guard Cohort Study (June 2018)
|NRT memo to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Coast Guard (USCG) Regional Response Team (RRT) Co-Chairs regarding recent National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and USCG Cohort Studies.
Interactive Selection Guide for Oil Spill Response Countermeasures (https://sg.nrt.org)
|Use it to simplify your evaluation of non-conventional ("applied") technologies,
including chemical and biological products and additives, and in-situ burning (ISB),
for real-time oil spill response, exercises, pre-spill planning, or
Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research (ICCOPR)
ICCOPR is a 15-member Interagency Committee established by Title VII of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (Section 7001). ICCOPR was established to: "...coordinate a comprehensive program of oil pollution research, technology development, and demonstration among the federal agencies, in cooperation and coordination with industry, universities, research institutions, state governments, and other nations, as appropriate, and shall foster cost-effective research mechanisms, including the joint funding of the research."
Radiological and Nuclear Hazards: QRGs and other links
Improvised Nuclear Device QRG (2013)
|Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Quick Reference Guide (QRG) for Federal On-Scene Coordinators (FOSCs).
Radiological Dispersion Devices QRG (2012)
Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD) Quick Reference Guide (QRG) for Federal On-Scene Coordinators (FOSCs).
Radiation Emergency Preparedness and Response (OSHA)
|The website provides a wealth of information on radiation and radiation emergencies. It is intended to help workers and employers who may be involved in emergency response
operations or impacted by radiation emergencies, but who do not have emergency response roles. It also introduces workers and employers to hazard assessment
and radiation measurement and describes health effects associated with
exposure to radiation.
Health and Safety Planning Guide for Planners, Safety Officers, and Supervisors for Protecting Responders Following a Nuclear Detonation (DHS)
|To provide planners and responders a better understanding for addressing the unique risks encountered in the post-IND environment, DHS and our interagency partners developed the “Health and Safety Planning Guide for Planners, Safety Officers, and Supervisors for Protecting Responders Following a Nuclear Detonation” and accompanying quick reference guide. This guidance is intended to aid in preserving the health and safety of response personnel in order to sustain lifesaving and critical infrastructure support for the duration of the emergency.
Radiation Emergency Medical Management (HHS)
|The Radiation Emergency Medical Management (REMM) website provides guidance for health care providers, primarily physicians, about clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury during radiological and nuclear emergencies. REMM resources provide just-in-time, evidence-based, usable information with sufficient background and context to make complex issues understandable to those without formal radiation medicine expertise.
Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Response Guidance: Planning for the First 100 Minutes (DHS)
|This document uses a notional 100 minute timeframe to provide technical recommendations on field operations, public messaging, and response coordination.
Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex (NRIA) to the National Response Framework (NRF) (FEMA)
|The Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex (NRIA) to the National Response Framework (NRF) describes the policies, situations, concepts of operations, and responsibilities of the Federal departments and agencies governing the immediate response and short-term recovery activities for incidents involving release of radioactive materials to address the consequences of the event.
Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents (GPO)
|Federal Register Notice of Final Guidance for Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents.
Radiation Emergency Assistance Center (DOE)
|Through the management of the Radiation
Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), the Oak Ridge Institute
for Science and Education (ORISE) positions the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
as an international leader in emergency medical response to radiation
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
|The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a semi-autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of Energy responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear explosive testing; works to reduce the global danger from weapons of mass destruction; provides the U.S. Navy with safe and effective nuclear propulsion; and responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad.
Ionizing Radiation (OSHA)
|Recognition, Evaluation, Control, and Compliance.
Oil, Alternative Techniques
|In Situ Burning
Residues from In-Situ Burning (ISB) of Oil on Water (2000)
Part of a series of fact sheets produced by the NRT Science & Technology Committee on in-situ burning (ISB); Provides guidance on the residues produced from in-situ burning of oil on water; Intended to assist RRTs, On-Scene Coordinators (OSC), and other regional and local staff involved in ISB.
Guidance on Developing a Site Safety Plan for Marine In-Situ Burn Operations (1997)
The following site safety plan was written to assist the RRTs and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) in responding to a marine/open water spill. The plan includes those elements unique to in-situ burning (ISB) for response personnel. Topics addressed include: burn entry objectives, response organization, burn area control, hazard evaluation, personal protective equipment (PPE), decontamination procedures, etc.
Site Safety Plans for Marine In-Situ Burning Operations (1997)
Provides information on site safety planning specific to in-situ burning. Safety hazards for in-situ burning (ISB) operations are similar to those of mechanical response operations at sea, with additional hazards related to the burning of oil.
The Efficacy of Fire Resistant Containment Booms (1999)
In order for in-situ burning (ISB) to be an effective spill response tool, oil thickness must be between 2-3mm. Most response plans for ISB at sea call for the use of fire resistant boom to contain the oil and maintain this minimum slick thickness during the burn. This fact sheet explores the current state of fire boom technology, existing protocols and standards, and future research and development needs.
Bibliography on In-Situ Burning (1998)
Updated since 1996, this compilation of references is intended to provide the user with information on in-situ burning (ISB) that may be useful or interesting.
Applicability of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Hazardous Waste Management Regulations on In-Situ Burning of Oil Spills (1996)
Provides general information on how the hazardous waste management regulations implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) may apply to the in-situ burning (ISB) of oil spills.
Applicability of Clean Air Act Ambient Air Quality Regulations to the In-Situ Burning of Oils Spills (1995)
Provides an overview of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and briefly discusses how such provisions may affect the use of in-situ burning (ISB). Identifies relevant local contacts with which to consult.
Igniters and Ignition Technology for In-Situ Burning of Oil (1995)
Often, the window of opportunity for a burn may be only a few hours. Igniter systems, which are critical to the success of any in-situ burning (ISB) event, need to be safe, effective, convenient to use and store and easy to mobilize. This fact sheet provides background on oil slick ignition, past and current igniter technology, recent research and development efforts and future research and development needs.
Aeration Techniques for In-Situ Burning of Oil: Enhancing an Alternative Spill Response Method (1995)
Despite the minimal hazards posed by soot and gas, thick black smoke produced in an in-situ burning (ISB) appears threatening, eroding public confidence in the safety of the process. This fact sheet identifies techniques to enhance ISB. Most notably, providing the necessary air to a burn avoids starved combustion of oil, thereby reducing the emission of hazardous smoke and soot, and shortening response time.
Guidance on Burning Spilled Oil In-Situ (1995)
Designed to assist RRTs in developing oil spill contingency plans, this fact sheet examines acceptable exposure limits to hazardous particulates for both the general public and responders. It also discusses other risk factors, monitoring and sampling strategies, and identifies future research priorities.
An Alternative Approach to Spill Response (1992)
Provides recent information on in-situ burning (ISB) for consideration as an alternative technology to present cleanup methods such as mechanical recovery or dispersants.